Thursday, December 5, 2019

Cacharel Case free essay sample

Brand is the name of firm, products, services, and above all, it is coherent with the firm’s image from customers’ perception. Those physical appearances and intangible values of a brand constitute brand identity, which is the first thing that customers recognise the firm. In result, brand management aims to build a bright reputation in customers’ mind that brings brand identity to a critical role in marketing projects. In commercial history, we have seen many famous brands fall in the market which has been affected significantly due to apply inappropriately perception of brand identity. Therefore, this paper is going to decode issues of the brand identity in the case study Cacharel Parfums Cacharel de L’Oreal (2007, Insead). Cacharel had the two biggest selling products in the Europian market in 1980s- Anais Anais and Loulou. Unfortunately, since 1988 Cacharel faced a down turn, even with the launch of a new brand Eden in 1994. So what is the real cause of that crisis? The critical question challenged the new board director of Cacharel – Katsachnias and his team. His intuition told the basic problem was mistakes in branding. Consequently, he questioned some crucial facets related to the Cacharel’s brand during her history. In the next paragraphs, we will find out answers about Cacharel‘s brand identity, and how far they contributed to the succeed as well as failure of Cacharel. 1. What is Cacharel’s brand identity? What are its conceptual and tangible components? Can it be summarized in less than five words? According to Temporal (2002), brand identity is the total promises that a company makes to consumers. It may include of traits and attributes and values that the brand has. Customers can recognise a brand identity by outward expression: name, trademarks, communications and visual appearance. In another word, brand identity reflects what and how the company wants customers perceive the brand. Description of the brand Use of images : Source of identity Figure 1: Identity and three layers of a brand (Source: Kapferer, chapter 11, p291) Figure 1 illustrates how components constitute a brand. It consists of brand style (visible components) and intangible elements in which identity is essentially made from the brand kernel. Based on that theory, the first perfume of Cacharel- Anais Anais, was launched in 1987, perceived as a luxury brand but affordable for young women consumers. In addition, it was tender but sexy and prestigious but innovation (2007, Insead). That conceptual component of Cacharel’s brand identity was maintained mainly in Loulou, launched in1987. Moreover, Loulou was a symbol of a real woman, â€Å"more aware of her seductive power† (2007, Insead). Launching Loulou was a continuous evolution of the brand to adapt the growing market over time, while still keeping the brand identity (Kapferer, chapter 11). Thus, Loulou’s launching did not blur the image of Anais Anais in the customers’ minds. The visual appearance of Cacharel’s logo (shape, colour, graphic), the familiar young woman’s image on their products package, TV advertisement are the tangible components of brand identity. In summary, the Cacharel’s brand identity can be described as an image of a â€Å"young, tender, luxurious, romantic woman†. From this basic concept of brand identity, we will discuss the identity of umbrella brand and sub-brand in the next question. 2. Does the Cacharel umbrella brand itself have an identity beyond that of its sub-brands? Which sub-brands are mostly responsible for creating Cacharel’s identity? Cacharel fragrance brand was acquired by the L’Oreal group in 1975 (Insead, 2007). L’Oreal is known as a house of diverse corporate and umbrella brands, namely just a few: L’Oreal Paris, Lancome, Cacharel, Giogio Armani, Ralph Lauren and many others. Each of these umbrella brands has below it numerous products brands and line brands. They constitute so-called a multi-brand matrix (Marketing Mastermind, 2008). Cacharel umbrella brand belongs to the Luxury Products Division, one of three divisions of the L’Oreal group, which offers up-market premium products to consumers. Every umbrella brand has established distinct identity, image to focus on different target market, in turn; the Cacharel umbrella itself is perceived as an encompassing combination of prestige, femininity, charm and romanticism. (Kepferer, chapter 11, p292). As a result, Anais Anais was the most responsible for creating Cacharel’s identity by its extraordinary succeed. In the shoes of Katsachnias, we have been encoding the Cacharel brand identity in some extends, whether it helps to revitalize the brand at its crisis? We continuously perceive this insight in the next question. Figure 2: Designing your brand identity (Source: www. daniellemacinnis. com/marketing/brand-identity) 3. What is the root source of Cacharel’s maturity crisis, and how can understanding the brand’s identity help? Firstly, the arrival of one American competitor- Calvin Klein in 1994 was a dazed punch to the declining market share of Cacharel. The CK’s advertisement had touched to the heart of young consumers in a chaotic changing of social and political certainties (Insead, 2007). They did focus on consumer trends meanwhile Cacharel had missed and shaped customers preferences by themself. Doug Holt (2003), in his work â€Å"How Brands become icons† he said that the most successful brands use myths to address deep national conflicts that reside within the individual‘s psychology, then those consumers use brands to heal their conflicts. Those brands empathically understand of people’s most acute desires and anxieties. Secondly, Cacharel made mistakes by inconsistent brand identity for new product launches, particularly with Eden. With the connotations of eroticism targeting on both gender, Eden had stepped out the boundary of Cacharel’s brand identity, while young consumers had still continued to buy Anais Anais, as its coherence was set a girl quite innocent, tender with floral fragrance. Kapferer (chapter 11, p271) he states that the identity of the brand is its kernel, the attributes that are necessary for the brand to remain itself, once they change will be hampered. Figure 3: Logo evolution of Cocacola (source: www. boredpanda. com) As we can see on the figure 1, Cocacola’s logo has changed over time, but they (firm’s owners) were extremely carefully to maintain their visual identity (shape, colour, and name). The aim is to avoid damaging the brand identity. Katsachnias had found that setting out Cacharel brand identity help clarify the root source for the two issues; firstly, Anais Anais still consumed by young customers even in the crisis period of Cacharel, and secondly, the declining of the new product Eden. He felt that the brand revitalization should begin by comparing how much overlap between brand identity and brand image. Figure 4: . Source: http://www. brainmates. com. au/ In other words, he looked for what customers see and think about what Cacharel wanted them to. So what did he chose to do among many solutions of Cacharel‘s brand revitalization? The last question is going to discuss on which chosen approach. 4. Should Kataschnias bring the Cacharel brand closer to where the market is now? Should he focus on meeting the desires of today’s consumers or on remaining faithful to the brand’s original identity? Kataschnias believed that introspection the brand is the crucial step after founding the main cause of Cacharel‘s decline. Consequently, his approach was focusing on the past rather than on the future or about the customers’ desires. Moreover, he moved promotion costs to media advertisement to help raise awareness of target consumers on the brand identity. This adjustment was also to recorrect the marketing mix, bring the Cacharel brand closer its one-time position. By realised the critical mission of brand identity and its tangible elements, he went ahead with the re-launch of Anais Anais, then the new fragrance Nemo for men and the immensely successful Noa for women (Insead, 2001). The Cacharel‘s ill was a typical case of brand management. Intuitively, Kataschnias had pointed out the turmoil by internal brand identity audits instead of external surveys in consumer trends. Noa Gold Cacharel Perfume Nemo by Cacharel for Men CONCLUSION In summary, case study Cacharel imprints an explicit notion of brand identity in the aspect of brand management. Brand identity is the meaning and expression of the brand which it wants to present to their customers. Although brands have to make evolution through time to adapt with customers’ perception and markets, but the brand identity should be insistent with the original values and conceptual kernels. For customers, their perception of the brand is accumulated through the coherence of their repeated experiences over time (Kapferer, p280). Therefore, even brand changes sometimes to surprise customers, but brand identity has to set a boundary. Anais Anais and Loulou are the two one-time best-selling of Cacharel as they followed the basic coherence and insistence of brand identity. Advertisements of Anais Anais or Loulou featured a slip of a young, innocent girl in a classic 20’s bob haircut, or in a dark stretch dress- so Parisian at the time (Shrine P, 2011). That is the myth which Cacharel had built in the consumers’mind. However, Eden had flopped because of losing the most basic brand identity of Cacharel which created and deeply imprinted in consumers’ minds since launching of Anais Anais.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Skin Care Essays - Cosmetics, Eye Shadow, Lipstick, Human Skin Color

Skin Care Throughout the late 1800's and until the present, cosmetics and skin care have been important in the lives of women in America. Certain trends have come and gone, just as some have remained. In the past 100 years, the roles and lives of women have changed drastically, but their cosmetics have always been around. Charm books along with step-by-step manuals give us today a look into the past. Advertisements are also a great source of history. Using these means, central themes in cosmetics can be determined, almost simply. Throughout the past century, pleasing your man, looking natural, and being a sophisticated, contemporary woman with a fresh young look, have been important to the cosmetic companies and to their female consumers. In the late 1800's, cosmetics were being produced and sold to college-aged women and older. However, a large hypocrisy was occurring. Women were being told that it was necessary to wear cosmetics, however, it was vain to wear noticeable make-up. It was quoted from St. Paul's Magazine that, "If a girl has the trial of a complexion so bad that the sight of it gives one a turn, it is simply a duty for her either not to go into society at all, or, if she does, to conceal it?you have no right to inflict your misfortunes on everybody-it is an unpardonable offense against good taste" (Williams 113). The women of this time were being bombarded with mixed messages. Their problems with this hypocrisy were settled to only wearing a light powder and rouge. Colors worn were usually corals and peaches because brighter colors would not provide the appropriate image that the woman was trying to convey. Their goal was to convey a natural glow that healthy women possessed. There were the years when women were slapping their cheeks and biting their lips to draw 'natural' color to their face. It was also quoted that, "Every college girl's room should be fitted with a mirror, so that even when immersed in her studies the young lady should not be negligent of her appearance" (Williams 113). Even 100 years ago, women were being forced to be aware of their appearance at all times. The early 1900's brought about a slight change in women's cosmetics. Lipsticks were the norm and mascara and eyeshadow were emphasized as necessary for eveningwear. This came about after the First World War. Also, in the 1920's, class lines were being broken. The flappers came out smoking cigarettes, cutting their hair, and wearing cosmetics that "did not harmonize their facial make-up" (Williams 134). Many other women followed parts of these trends and it was no longer possible to tell a woman's social position from her appearance. Then again in the 1930's, women went back to more natural and softer hues. Women were being told that the older they were, the more make-up they were using would help them look their best (Williams 147). The goal at this time was to keep your man guessing if your complexion was natural or not. Depilatories were used to remove unwanted hair sprouting from the face and bleaches were used to fade aging spots. Here, pleasing your man and reverting back to youth play an important role in the cosmetics being used by women. In the 1950's, charm and the essence of being a 'perfect little woman' were important. Inner beauty was seen as one's charm, where outer beauty was their passport to the world (McLeod 37). Step-by- step charm books gave women the instructions to be pretty and popular. Never forget, "perfect make-up is date bait" (McLeod 52). Home skin care remedies were used as well as following a strict daily regimen, including diet, hair care, and housework. Following a regimen was seen as good for one's health (McLeod 41). On into the 1960's, skin care was a big issue. However, many misconceptions were going around. Women were told that oily skin resulted from their improper mental attitude and improper breathing, just as dry skin was caused by poor function of the master gland (Jones 8). In the 1960's, the art of camouflage was necessary to perfect one's facial features and provide a natural look (Jones 32). Since skin care was such a big issue, determining one's skin tone was a must. Women were instructed to go to a window with bright light to determine if they had pink, cream, or olive undertones. But if they were pale and had come to no conclusion, they were Skin Care Essays - Cosmetics, Eye Shadow, Lipstick, Human Skin Color Skin Care Throughout the late 1800's and until the present, cosmetics and skin care have been important in the lives of women in America. Certain trends have come and gone, just as some have remained. In the past 100 years, the roles and lives of women have changed drastically, but their cosmetics have always been around. Charm books along with step-by-step manuals give us today a look into the past. Advertisements are also a great source of history. Using these means, central themes in cosmetics can be determined, almost simply. Throughout the past century, pleasing your man, looking natural, and being a sophisticated, contemporary woman with a fresh young look, have been important to the cosmetic companies and to their female consumers. In the late 1800's, cosmetics were being produced and sold to college-aged women and older. However, a large hypocrisy was occurring. Women were being told that it was necessary to wear cosmetics, however, it was vain to wear noticeable make-up. It was quoted from St. Paul's Magazine that, "If a girl has the trial of a complexion so bad that the sight of it gives one a turn, it is simply a duty for her either not to go into society at all, or, if she does, to conceal it?you have no right to inflict your misfortunes on everybody-it is an unpardonable offense against good taste" (Williams 113). The women of this time were being bombarded with mixed messages. Their problems with this hypocrisy were settled to only wearing a light powder and rouge. Colors worn were usually corals and peaches because brighter colors would not provide the appropriate image that the woman was trying to convey. Their goal was to convey a natural glow that healthy women possessed. There were the years when women were slapping their cheeks and biting their lips to draw 'natural' color to their face. It was also quoted that, "Every college girl's room should be fitted with a mirror, so that even when immersed in her studies the young lady should not be negligent of her appearance" (Williams 113). Even 100 years ago, women were being forced to be aware of their appearance at all times. The early 1900's brought about a slight change in women's cosmetics. Lipsticks were the norm and mascara and eyeshadow were emphasized as necessary for eveningwear. This came about after the First World War. Also, in the 1920's, class lines were being broken. The flappers came out smoking cigarettes, cutting their hair, and wearing cosmetics that "did not harmonize their facial make-up" (Williams 134). Many other women followed parts of these trends and it was no longer possible to tell a woman's social position from her appearance. Then again in the 1930's, women went back to more natural and softer hues. Women were being told that the older they were, the more make-up they were using would help them look their best (Williams 147). The goal at this time was to keep your man guessing if your complexion was natural or not. Depilatories were used to remove unwanted hair sprouting from the face and bleaches were used to fade aging spots. Here, pleasing your man and reverting back to youth play an important role in the cosmetics being used by women. In the 1950's, charm and the essence of being a 'perfect little woman' were important. Inner beauty was seen as one's charm, where outer beauty was their passport to the world (McLeod 37). Step-by- step charm books gave women the instructions to be pretty and popular. Never forget, "perfect make-up is date bait" (McLeod 52). Home skin care remedies were used as well as following a strict daily regimen, including diet, hair care, and housework. Following a regimen was seen as good for one's health (McLeod 41). On into the 1960's, skin care was a big issue. However, many misconceptions were going around. Women were told that oily skin resulted from their improper mental attitude and improper breathing, just as dry skin was caused by poor function of the master gland (Jones 8). In the 1960's, the art of camouflage was necessary to perfect one's facial features and provide a natural look (Jones 32). Since skin care was such a big issue, determining one's skin tone was a must. Women were instructed to go to a window with bright light to determine if they had pink, cream, or olive undertones. But if they were pale and had come to no conclusion, they were

Sunday, November 24, 2019

10 Tips About Basic Writing Competency

10 Tips About Basic Writing Competency 10 Tips About Basic Writing Competency 10 Tips About Basic Writing Competency By Mark Nichol Here are ten areas to be sure to attend to if you wish to be taken seriously as a professional writer. Formatting 1. Do not enter two letter spaces between sentences. Use of two spaces is an obsolete convention based on typewriter technology and will mark you as out of touch. If editors or other potential employers or clients notice that you don’t know this simple fact, they may be skeptical about your writing skills before you’ve had a chance to impress them. 2. Take care that paragraphs are of varying reasonable lengths. Unusually short or long paragraphs are appropriate in moderation, but allowing a series of choppy paragraphs or laboriously long ones to remain in a final draft is unprofessional. 3. If you’re submitting a manuscript or other content for publication, do not format it with various fonts and other style features. Editors want to read good writing, not enjoy aesthetically pleasing (or not) manuscripts; efforts to prettify a file are a distraction. Style 4. Do not, in rà ©sumà ©s or in other text, get carried away with capitalization. You didn’t earn a Master’s Degree; you earned a master’s degree. You didn’t study Biology; you studied biology. You weren’t Project Manager; you were project manager. (Search the Daily Writing Tips website for â€Å"capitalization† to find numerous articles on the subject.) 5. Become familiar with the rules for styling numbers, and apply them rationally. 6. Know the principles of punctuation, especially regarding consistency in insertion or omission of the serial comma, avoidance of the comma splice, and use of the semicolon. (Search the Daily Writing Tips website for â€Å"punctuation† to find numerous articles on the subject.) And if you write in American English and you routinely place a period after the closing quotation mark at the end of a sentence rather than before it, go back to square one and try again. 7. Hyphenation is complicated. In other breaking news, life isn’t fair. Don’t count on editors to cure your hyphenation hiccups for you; become your own expert consultant. (In addition to reading the post I linked to here, search the Daily Writing Tips website for â€Å"hyphenation† to find numerous articles on the subject.) 8. Avoid â€Å"scare quotes.† A term does not need to be called out by quotation marks around it unless you must clarify that the unusual usage is not intended to be read literally, or when they are employed for â€Å"comic† effect. (In this case, the implication is that the comic effect is patently unamusing.) Usage 9. For all intensive purposes, know your idioms. (That should be â€Å"for all intents and purposes,† but you should also just omit such superfluous phrases.) On a related note, avoid clichà ©s like the plague except when you don’t. They’re useful, but generous use is the sign of a lazy writer. Spelling 10. Don’t rely on spellchecking programs to do your spelling work for you, and always verify spelling (and wording) of proper nouns. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Homograph ExamplesConfused Words #3: Lose, Loose, LossBail Out vs. Bale Out

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Genocide in Rwanda and Bosnia Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Genocide in Rwanda and Bosnia - Term Paper Example An absolutely preplanned and controlled attempt at systematically destroying a politically or ethnically defined group is known as genocide. Political leaders do signal out their intention at carrying out genocide against a certain group, and this is clear through the kinds of speeches they give or the actions they perform; they do reveal their want of nationalism. Mass murder, destruction, and forced expulsion; all these reveal the intention of the leader to carry out genocide against the targeted people. The legacy of genocide is very much visible in the stories that the survivors relate of their experiences and besides that the destroyed lands along with the incomplete response from the international community together account for it. Following the genocides in Rwanda and Bosnia the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) made prosecution of war criminals legally permissible. Besides there being lawful arguments regarding the issue of genocide which are concerned basically with jurisdiction, precedent and punishment for war crimes, the UN members have recognized that their basic goal of preserving international peace and stability is harmed by such mass atrocities as genocides. A resolution was passed in the February of 1993 which called for the formation of a global tribunal that would punish the ones who hold the responsibility of â€Å"serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991† (Resolution 808, paragraph 1). ... The Role of UN Following the genocides in Rwanda and Bosnia the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) made prosecution of war criminals legally permissible. Besides there being lawful arguments regarding the issue of genocide which are concerned basically with jurisdiction, precedent and punishment for war crimes, the UN members have recognized that their basic goal of preserving international peace and stability is harmed by such mass atrocities as genocides. A resolution was passed in the February of 1993 which called for the formation of a global tribunal that would punish the ones who hold the responsibility of â€Å"serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991† (Resolution 808, paragraph 1). Following this resolution were passed certain other acts that determined the injustice being done. In 1992 there were certain acts passed for the condemnation of such extensive violations of basic human rights whi ch include, but are not limited to, mass murders, rapes, forced expulsions, property destruction, arbitrary arrests, and ethnic cleansing – basically, the organized terrorism that provokes certain groups to forcibly leave their area and migrate somewhere else that may be safer for them. A Chapter VII decision helped in the formation of the International Criminal Tribunal by the UNSC. This was formed for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Through this the UN was allowed to intrude over the sovereignty rights that were present for the protection of regional safety. Resolution 955 was passed by the UNSC in November 1994 which led to the establishment of the international Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda